Recent research from US and Italian scientists has shown that the concrete used to make Roman harbors in the Mediterranean was more resistant than modern concrete (known as Portland cement). Roman Geopolymer Concrete Recipe: This recipe was originally released on /r/Floathouse. A chemical reaction within ancient Roman concrete actually makes the substance stronger over time, researchers have discerned. I want to use a geopolymer as rendering over existing concrete blocks. This mix with all sand and no rock came out very beautiful and strong, but it could be made stronger with some rock most likely.". Allow the lye to cool down as you mix, then add more lye until it absorbs. Concrete was usually covered as concrete walls were considered unaesthetic. 2% calcium flyash is about as good as can be hoped for. There are places on this planet where water will boil at 200 F (93.3 C) . This is pretty neat. Researchers discovered the Roman concrete contained aluminium tobermorite, a rare mineral that adds extra strength. It does not need to be covered or kept wet while curing. Actually it has been argued that the concrete used by the Romans was of better quality than the concrete in use today. Thanks for adding this! He wasn’t exaggerating. Why are millennia-old ancient Roman piers still standing strong as veritable concrete islands, while modern concrete structures built only decades ago crumble from an onslaught of wind and waves? https://www.reddit.com/r/Floathouse/comments/2nq6b7/here_is_the_recipe_for_making_geopolymer_concrete/, 2 years ago Amazingly, when the Roman Empire fell, the know-how to making concrete was lost. But 'geo' refers to rocks, as in 'geology,' so what's actually being referred to is the polymerization of rock-based materials, which is a very weird concept. Don't leave these standing in the air too long because they will absorb moisture from the air and become gummy. If you don't make it yourself it can be a bit expensive in small quantities and is probably the most expensive component of geopolymer concrete. It was a selling point if made all the new roads and building out of it it could absorb the carbon and lock it up for hundreds of years. Thanks for shearing. If you see bubbles forming that's okay, just stir and let it cool. For example, Roman harbors remain intact today after 2,000 years of waves breaking on the harbors' breakwaters whereas Portland concrete begins to erode in less than 50 years of sea battering. Measure out 255.7g of liquid waterglass (36.5% sodium-silicate, 62.5% water). There's also a type-C geopolymer formula useful for landed applications. Lye is often used in making soap, or pretzels. The exact formula remains unknown. on Introduction, I take it that the temperature measurements are all in Fahrenheit and not Celsius, Answer I'm actually in awe. This makes it crack resistant as well. The Roman Panethon, a huge concrete building that has endured for nearly 2,000 years. If it burns you, wash the spot with water for 10 min. Roman concrete depended on a supply of pozzolana stone, a kind of volcanic mineral known to come from only a handful of places. This ancient gel matches the chemical formula of today’s bonding gel for concrete. By Zahra Ahmad Jul. Roman concrete (opus caementicium), like modern concrete, is an artificial building material composed of an aggregate, a binding agent, and water. Portland cement is made by heating clays and limestone at high temperatures (various additives are also added) while the Romans used volcanic ash and a much smaller amount of lime heated at lower temperatures than modern methods. One point on this, we began omitting the rock and using pure sand and still obtained a high strength value, but I suggest you play around with the ration of rock to sand and try to find a good medium point. I'm guessing it is mixed in with the aggregate and water at the beginning? Author of the publication Marie D. Jackson and her team found out that the main explanation of this phenomenon lies in a special type of concrete called "opus caementicium," which was used during the construction of many buildings of that time. The term 'geopolymer' can be confusing because when we hear the word we are used to thinking in terms of plastic. This is known as the heat of hydration in cement, and is … Concrete was the Roman Empire’s construction material of choice. One more note, do not use beach sand, you want some kind of granite-sand or mason-sand. As a result, buildings lasted longer as they did not suffer from steel corrosion. Probably the best-preserved example of Roman concrete used in seawater can be found in the ancient port city of Caesarea in Israel. This is fantastic and amazing. This aggregate has to be inert, because any unwanted chemical reaction can cause cracks in the concrete, leading to erosion and crumbling of the structures. The production technique was quite incredible: the mix was one-part lime for two-parts volcanic ash, and it was placed in volcanic tuff or small wooden cases. Why modern mortar crumbles, but Roman concrete lasts millennia. The secret to Roman concrete lies in its unique mineral formulation and production technique. I have not yet perfected the geopolymer formula, though I have learned a good bit about what to do and what not to do. It's quite cheap too, I was able to buy 10 pounds of pure lye for ~$30. The Portland cement formula crucially lacks the lyme and volcanic ash mixture. Finally, has an approximate cost per cubic yard been determined. on Step 3, Michael Im partial to the mag oxide formulations ...here are some pictures, Reply So we Also, this rock and sand should be measured out at its wet-weight, not dry weight. But it's chemically better to make your own fresh waterglass from lye, it results in better geopolymer cement. Long lost Roman concrete formula rediscovered Concrete has been used in the modern era for only 300 years or so. And hydrated Portland cement released the calcium compound recognized in the lime part of the Roman concrete formula. Measure 41g of water add it in. Share it with us! Yeah. This mix with all sand and no rock came out very beautiful and strong, but it could be made stronger with some rock most likely. So what some have done is mix up a great deal of wet and proportioned fly ash and aggregate in a cement truck, drive to the pouring site, mix in the final alkali activators, let them mix a few minutes, then pour like any concrete. Start with a plastic cup of water, 60.7g of it, and then add about half the lye. An ancient Roman pier is still standing in a bay in Italy, and researchers have studied samples of the concrete to explore the secrets of its long-lasting strength J.P. Oleson View gallery - 4 images And be careful, because lye can burn your skin in such a way that it will do damage long before you feel any pain, so be careful. (This means 41g of lye and 60.7 grams of water). Like many things, it fell out of use. What's more it cures quick rapidly, but doesn't begin curing until you give it the alkali activator. 2 years ago Roman concrete formula. The Romans may have gotten the idea for this mixture from naturally cemented volcanic ash deposits called tuff that are common in the area, as Pliny described. Is this the result of the given receipt? Most modern concretes are bound by limestone-based Portland cement. The first pour had 1715g of rock and 734.3g of sand. The alternative was to try to coat the paddle somehow, and that wasn't a good option as we thought it would surely wear off into the mix. I performed this recipe with 5% flyash that was available to me. When water touches calcium compounds the result gives off heat. However, Roman concrete didn’t suffer from this. Unless I'm missing something, the instructions didn't say when or how to add the flyash? One thing we learned was to not play around with the water ratio. Is this the same concrete that absorbs carbon dioxide from the atmosphere? It will heat the water almost to the boiling point. Don't use beach sand, it results in significant strength loss. Within 3 days it will have 95% of its full strength, and 99% within a month. With the lye solution we add a chemical called waterglass, which can actually be made from lye if you're willing by heating it considerably. could I use burned rice shell husk for the fly ash ?I would like to do something in the Philippines sourcing the materials is going to be a challenge. Now, on to the instructable! More information on geopolymers at the opensource ecology wiki, or at wikipedia. We did a lot of playing with water ratios and had a lot of failed pours that failed to set-up. on Step 4. Pour about half of the lye into the water and mix with a wooden stirrer. However if you're ever in doubt there's a simply test you can perform. In fact, it got stronger the longer it was in seawater, which is totally counter-intuitive. These are the proportions by weight for our geopolymer concrete that tested out at ~5,000+ PSI. It is now cured and has about 90% of its final strength. I think I read a bout this stuff a year or so ago but could not find a recipe for it. Immediately add it to the cooled lye-solution and stir together. Ancient Roman roads, aqueducts, the Pantheon, cathedrals and other constructions have survived several thousand years and are still in use. At 200°F it cures in 4 hours. I wonder about using chopped basalt fiber in place of rock aggregate? As a result, it doesn’t bind quite as well when compared with the Roman concrete, researchers found. This is some cool stuff. Cure the geopolymer in a pre-heated oven at no more than 200° Fahrenheit. The alkali activator is liquid lye prepared with water. Super cool. We have also learned that the Romans followed a placement method of tamping their stiff mortar into the voids of a rock layer. Pour the solution into the aggregate and mix for several minutes with a mechanical mixing paddle. Calcium compounds in both concrete and type-C high-calcium flyash are what cause both concrete and type-C flyash to cure themselves by generating their own heat, what's known as the heat of hydration. Perlite is used for refractory ovens and could be used in the mix. We used 2.5" cube molds made of wood and previously coated in silicone caulk. Standard colors are available from supply companies. There were many variations of concrete and Rome even saw the Concrete Revolution which represented advances in the composition of concrete and allowed for the construction of impressive monuments such as the Pantheon. Why aren't geopolymers being used more widely right now? Measure 41g of solid lye pellets. Although, the Intro Step ambiguously just has numbers followed by that little circle, degree symbol, thing. 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