However, ripe berries and cooked leaves of edible strains are used as food in some locales, and plant parts are used as a traditional medicine. Young plant showing leaves and flowers. The berries should be harvested when fully ripe and carefully air-dried. Bumble bees pollinate the flowers of this species. Carolina horsenettle. Some familiar members of this family include to-bacco, tomato and potato. ... horse nettle. The stems, petioles, and central leaf vein, and occasionally the leaf margins, have sharp and painful prickles. [10] Anthonomus nigrinus feeds on the flowers, and Trichobaris trinotata bores into the stems. The fruits are benefical to wildlife. Close-up of flower and seedpod. They have been used in the treatment of epilepsy [207, 222]. apple of Sodom. Because of the intense competition among plants and their root systems, this plant is less aggressive in prairie habitats than in disturbed sites around developed areas. Other common names include radical weed, sand brier or briar, bull nettle, tread-softly, Solanum mammosum ("apple of Sodom"), devil's tomato and wild tomato. [3] It has also been found in parts of Europe, Asia, and Australia. They are pubescent on the upper surface and have sessile stellate (star-shaped) hairs on the lower surface. [12] It can spread vegetatively by underground rhizomes as well as by seed. Perennial herb with prickles; leaves alternate and simple, lobed or coarsely toothed; flower white to purplish, 5-parted; fruit a yellow berry. bull nettle. Saying it’s not edible because my cows don’t eat it is the same as saying, vegetables aren’t edible because my 3 year old won’t eat them. Horsenettle is part of the nightshade family, which includes tomatoes and potatoes. While ingesting any part of the plant can cause fever, headache, scratchy throat, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, ingesting the fruit can cause abdominal pain, circulatory and respiratory depression, or even death. Contact us to report errors. [7], These plants can be found growing in pastures, roadsides, railroad margins, and in disturbed areas and waste ground. Horse-nettle Scouting and Prevention: Horsenettle has an erect stem that stands about 60 to 100 cm tall with a few branches that are covered with tiny hairs at the top of the plant. A tea made from the wilted leaves has been gargled in the treatment of sore throats and the tea has been drunk in … It is resistant to many postemergent herbicides and somewhat resistant to broad-spectrum herbicides such as glyphosate and 2,4-D. Close-up of the leaves. The berries and the root are anodyne, antispasmodic, aphrodisiac and diuretic [4, 222]. Search Our Database: Enter any portion of the Scientific, Common Name, or both. Carolina Horse Nettle is weak-stemmed and can be sprawling, or erect to about 3 feed tall. These are 12mm to 15mm in diameter; they may be up to 20mm. It is resistant to many postemergent herbicides and somewhat resistant to broad-spectrum herbicides such as glyphosate and 2,4-D. If indeed your "nettle" is U. dioica, then yes it is most certainly an edible. The blossom of Carolina Horse Nettle is white to pale violet with long yellow anthers. This moth is a wasp mimic. It flowers throughout the summer, from April to October (on the northern hemisphere). Horses tend to avoid the plant because it is distasteful, and they are unlikely to eat enough to cause serious problems unless the weed is rampant in their pasture or they have no other suitable forage. When in pastures, horsenettle is often difficult to get rid of, due to it's deep roots and prickly stems and leaves. Most mammals avoid eating the stems and leaves due to both the spines and toxicity of the plant.[8]. The immature fruit is dark green with light green stripes, turning yellow and wrinkled as it matures. EUROPEAN AND MEDITERRANEAN PLANT PROTECTION ORGANIZATION, ЕВРОПЕЙСКАЯ И СРЕДИЗЕМНОМОРСКАЯ ОРГАНИЗАЦИЯ ПО КАРАНТИНУ И ЗАЩИТЕ РАСТЕНИЙ, ORGANISATION EUROPEENNE ET MEDITERRANEENNE POUR LA PROTECTION DES PLANTES, Leaves are alternate, elliptic-oblong to oval, Biota of North America Program 2014 state-level distribution map, "Identification and Control of Horsenettle, Horse Nettle (Solanum carolinense), Illinois Wildflowers. Not a true nettle, this is a member of the nightshade genus which includes the garden tomato. Carolina horsenettle is considered a noxious weed in several US states. Surface portion of Carolina Bristle Mallow plus long runner. Bull nettle seed pod which hold the tasty seeds. These fruits can be. Wise, Christopher F. Sacchi, "Impact of two specialist insect herbivores on reproduction of horse nettle, "Insects, Nematodes, and Pathogens Associated with Horsenettle (, "Plants Profile for Solanum carolinense (Carolina horsenettle)", Texas A&M University, AgriLife Research & Extension Center at Uvalde, Carolina Horse Nettle, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Solanum_carolinense&oldid=994048096, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. [9] The caterpillars of the Synanthedon rileyana moth[8] and the Manduca sexta (tobacco hornworm) moth feeds on the plant. One reason the Iowa noxious weed list hasn’t been brought up for reform and updating, as many professionals know it should be, is because of fear that the Legislature could easily make the list worse instead of better. Leaves smell like potatoes when crushed. Locally, a common nightshade is Carolina Horse-nettle (Solanum carolinense), the plant with … The stem is long and not heavily branching; it is covered in 2.0 - 4.0 mm long spines. Phonetic Spelling so-LAN-num kair-oh-lin-EN-say This plant has medium severity poison characteristics. Anodyne Antispasmodic Aphrodisiac Diuretic Poultice. The Tropical Soda Apple has larger leaves and long thorns and is more shrubby. [6], All parts of the plant, including its tomato-like fruit, are poisonous to varying degrees due to the presence of solanine glycoalkaloids which is a toxic alkaloid and one of the plant's natural defenses. The fruits also resemble tomatoes. Characteristics of the Carolina horsenettle (Solanum carolinense) Family: Solanaceae (nightshades). Blades, which alternate, are up to 10.0 cm l… See below Description. In spite of the edible cousins, do not eat any part of this plant; as with most nightshades it is highly poisonous. Carolina Bristle Mallow. Scientific Name(s): Cnidoscolus stimulosus, Cnidoscolus texanus Abundance: common What: seeds, taproot How: seeds raw, roasted; root baked Where: sunny fields When: summer, fall Nutritional Value: protein, calories Dangers: entire plant is covered in stinging hairs similar to stinging nettle. This page was last edited on 13 December 2020, at 21:10. While called a nettle, the Horsenettle is an herbaceous perennial plant of the nightshade family, native to the southeastern United States. Leaves are alternate, elliptic-oblong to oval, 2.5 to 4.5 inches (6.4 to 11.4 centimetres) long, and each is irregularly lobed or coarsely toothed. Michael J. Manduca sexta moths prefer inbred plants to outbred plants. It is an especially despised weed by gardeners who hand-weed, as the spines tend to penetrate the skin and then break off when the plant is grasped. Horsenettle, also called Carolina horsenettle or bullnettle, is a her-baceous perennial that is a member of the nightshade family (Solanaceae). Younger Carolina Bristle Mallow leaves are more deeply cleft/lobed than mature leaves. In fact, herbicide use often selects for horsenettle by removing competing weeds. This plant should be used with caution, see the notes above on toxicity. The Solanaceae family includes the Irish potato. They grow readily in sandy or loamy soils, and may also tolerate a wide range of soil types. Horse Nettle is widely regarded as a weed, with some justication, but it is also one of the native wildflowers of the prairie. The plant is also affected by Erysiphe cichoracearum, causing powdery mildew. Carolina horsenettle synonyms, Carolina horsenettle pronunciation, Carolina horsenettle translation, English dictionary definition of Carolina horsenettle. However, in these parts, there is also the Horse Nettle, Solanum carolinense, which contains solanine, a dangerous substance to ingest. The caterpillars of the day-flying moth Synanthedon rileyana (Riley's Clearwing) feed on Horse Nettle. Stems of older plants are woody. Though there are other horsenettle nightshades, S. carolinense is the species most commonly called "the horsenettle". The mature yellow fruits are eaten, to a limited extent, by the Ring-Necked Pheasant, Bobwhite, Wild Turkey, Eastern Striped Skunk, and possibly small rodents, thereby promoting the distribution of the seeds and spread of this plant. The deep root also makes it difficult to remove. This page only shows Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica) and Wood Nettle (Laportea canadensis).For contrast, two similar plants are shown at the bottom that are often confused with these species: Horse Balm (Collinsonia canadensis) and False Nettle (Boehmeria cylindrica). All branches and stems are sharp, hard and have 5 mm long spikes. It is a perennial herbaceous plant, native to the southeastern United States that has spread widely throughout much of temperate North America. [6] They prefer full sun, but can tolerate both wet or dry conditions. PO Box 63, Seneca, SC 29679; 864.606.4673; lmtf.macy@gmail.com I second Tyler's call to use the latin, and be sure of the id. Solanum carolinense, the Carolina horsenettle,[2] is not a true nettle, but a member of the Solanaceae, or nightshade family. Examples of nightshade plants include tomatoes, potatoes, bell peppers, jimsonweed and the poisonous belladonna nightshade. At least thirty-two insects, as well as the meadow vole Microtus pennsylvanicus, have been recorded feeding on this species in Virginia alone. Each fruit contains around 60 seeds. They become yellow when mature, but are not edible to humans. All content except USDA Plants Database map Copyright Gerald C. Williamson 2021, Wildflowers of Tennessee, the Ohio Valley and the Southern Appalachians: 2nd Edition, Weakley's Flora of the Southern and Mid-Atlantic States (2015), Dicot Perennial Subshrub Herb Leaves:Alternate. The leaves are usually shallowly lobed and up to about 5 inches long. Because of its many spines, the forage value of Carolina horse nettle is poor for wildlife and livestock. This moth is a wasp mimic. Bull nettle flower and leaves. They are most vigorous and most likely to become weedy or dominate on disturbed sites, but can also be found in less disturbed habitats.[8]. A Loja de Saúde do Prado, está sediada na Vila de Prado e tem uma Filial em Vila Verde, que oferece uma gama completa de produtos para todos os tipos de situações ortopédicas, anca, coluna, joelho, tornozelo, mão, cotovelo, ombro, punho e pé. [11], Parasitic nematodes of the genus Pratylenchus have been found on lesions on its roots, however causing little damage. Solanum carolinense L. – Carolina horsenettle Subordinate Taxa. This native of southeastern North Amer-ica is found throughout Tennessee; it … While the entire plant is toxic when ingested, the berries contain the highest potency of toxin. "Horsenettle" is also written "horse nettle" or "horse-nettle", though USDA publications usually use the one-word form. The plant grows to 3 feet (91 cm) tall, is perennial, and spreads by both seeds and underground rhizome. It is propagated by underground creeping rhizomes as well as by seed dispersal, often involving animals as vectors. An infusion of the seeds has been gargled as a treatment for sore throats and drunk in the treatment of goitre. [11], Fruits are eaten by a variety of native animals, including ring-necked pheasant, bobwhite, wild turkey, and striped skunk. The fungus Rhizoctonia solani was found causing root rot, particularly under wet conditions in plants damaged by trampling. The leaves feel coarse and the stem is hairy. Horsenettle, Solanum Carolinense, is similar looking to the Tropical Soda Apple but is a smaller plant. In fact, herbicide use often selects for horsenettle by removing competing weeds. The fruit is poisonous to livestock. However, it is not considered an edible plant like its potato and tomato counterparts. Flickr photos above were identified by the individual photographers but not reviewed by EoPS. ... We have a growing amount of horse nettle in our pastures–likely because our cows don’t eat it so unless we get it clipped at the right stage, it is seeding out and spreading. Carolina horse-nettle, horse-nettle, or bull-nettle (S. carolinense) (Figure 2) is a low-growing perennial herbaceous plant with a typical height between 0.3 and 1.3 m (Great Plains Flora Association 1986:647; Peterson and McKenny 1996:324; Steyermark 1981:1313). Carolina horsenettle is commonly found in the southeastern United States. [4][5] The stem and undersides of larger leaf veins are covered with spines. It can spread vegetatively by underground rhizomes as well as by seed. The fruit of Carolina Horse Nettle is yellow when ripe. The beetle Leptinotarsa juncta specializes on this plant, and the beetle Epitrix fuscula (eggplant flea beetle) eats it as well. Notice the spines on the stem. Like most edible plants, the best way to eat nettle is to consume it shortly after being harvested. Pinching off the top of the plant is a great way to take only tender new growth while leaving most of the plant to continue growing. Each fruit contains numerous seeds that are glossy yellow and flattened. Having Carolina horse nettle on the same list as major threats like multiflora rose is absurd. Primary noxious weed Nevada. [10] These two beetles are its two primary herbivores, and can reduce fruit production by as much as 75% relative to plants protected from all insects. Solanum is a large and diverse genus of flowering plants, which include three food crops of high economic importance, the potato, the tomato and the eggplant (aubergine, brinjal). Horsenettle (Solanum carolinense), a poisonous member of the nightshade family, is one of the most difficult weeds to eradicate since it resists most attempts at control.Tilling the soil only makes it worse because it brings seeds to the surface where they can germinate. Any livestock---including cattle, sheep, goats and pigs as well as horses---may be poisoned after eating large quantities of horse nettle. The scientific name is Solanum carolinense, and it is regarded as one of the most challenging plants to eradicate because it resists most efforts at control. The leaves of the horsenettle plant contain prickly fibers making it undesirable to many animals, but ingestion does happen occasionally. All content except USDA Plants Database map Copyright Gerald C. Williamson 2021Photographs Copyright owned by the named photographer. Horsenettle flowers can be purple or white where Tropical Soda Apple has only white blossoms. Carolina horsenettle is considered a noxious weed in several US states. Carolina horsenettle. The deep … It also contains the nightshades and horse nettles, as well as numerous plants cultivated for their ornamental flowers and fruit. Pick only the tenderest, youngest leaves. Home → Survival → Food → Edible Plants Nettles: There are several species of nettles. It is an especially despised weed by gardeners who hand-weed, as the spines tend to penetrate the skin and then break off when the plant is grasped. Carolina nightshade (Solanum carolinense), also known as horsenettle, is a perennial weed that is a member of the nightshade (Solanaceae) family.It is a common contaminate of horse pastures and poor quality hay bales in the southeastern United States. They grow to about 1 m (39 in) tall, but are typically shorter, existing as subshrubs. The flowers have five petals and are usually white or purple with yellow centers, though there is a blue variant that resembles the tomato flower. Noxious weed U.S. Weed Information; Solanum carolinense . Both surfaces are covered with fine hairs. The root system has creeping underground rhizomes, which are responsible for the vegetative spread of this plant. Nightshades are a worldwide family that contains many plants with highly toxic fruits; in fact, the Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) is one of the few nightshades that is edible. [9] This plant is also eaten by Leptinotarsa decemlineata (the Colorado potato beetle) and has been recorded as being eaten at very low rates by pupae of an unidentified species of the family Gelechiidae. In European traditional medicine, the plant has been used as a strong sudorific, analgesic, and sedative with powerful narcotic properties. 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